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[D] N.J. Divinsky, The Chess Encyclopedia, Facts on File, New York, 1990.
[E1] A. E. Elo, The Rating of Chessplayers, Past and Present, Arco, New York, 1978.
[E2] - "The International Chess Federation Rating System," Chess, Sutton-Coldfield, July, August, October, 1973.
[E3] - "F.I.D.E. Information: The Rating System in National Applications (A Supplement to the FIDE Presentation of 1970)"
[G] M. Gardner, The Colossal Book of Mathematics, W. W. Norton, New York, 2001.
[GJ] M. R. Garey and D. S. Johnson, Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness, Freeman, New York, 1967.
[HW] D. Hooper and K. Whyld, The Oxford Companion to Chess, 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press, 1992
[J] R. C. Jones, Evaluating Competitive Performance with Rankings and Ratings, Master of Science Thesis, University of Rhode Island, 1994
[V] R. v. Mises, Probability, Statistics and Truth, 2nd Revised English Edition, Dover Publications, New York 1957.